Celadon Ware

Celadon is the term used for pottery that are glazed in a jade green colour, also known as greenware. Celadon was already present from the 1st Century AD, although those earlier proto-celadon wares tended to be brown or yellow.

For many centuries celadon wares were highly regarded in Chinese Imperial courts. The similarity to the colour jade, the most highly valued material in China, was a large part of the attraction. The colour is produced by firing a glaze containing iron oxide at a high temperature in a reducing kiln. “True” celadon requires a minimum of 1,260 degrees Celsius furnace temperature. The method originated at the beginning of the Northern Song dynasty (960 - 1127AD). The most famous and desired shades ranged from very pale green to deep intense green mimicking the shade of jade.

After the capital moved to the South during the Southern Song Dynasty, Longquan celadon wares thrived in the Zhejiang province. Longquan celadon wares were exported throughout Asia and the Middle East during the 13th to 15th Centuries and were highly prized items. Its worth was increased by a belief in the Middle East and Europe that the celadon wares would break or change colour if poison was placed on them. The Longquan production area is one of the largest historical ceramic producing areas in China and “Longquan type” is increasingly preferred as a term for “southern celadon “ wares.

At Ghorbany Benmore we have a highly collectible Longquan celadon plate dating from the 14th Century with BADA stamp of authenticity.

German Beer Steins

It is rumoured that lidded beer steins were invented in Germany in the 14th Century as a result of the bubonic plague and several fly infestations in Europe. Germany established laws requiring beverage containers to be covered for sanitary purposes and pewter was the preferred material for lids.

At the same time techniques were created to improve earthenware by raising the firing temperature of clay. And so the earthenware beer steins with pewter lids were created.

After 1890 many German beer steins were made with lithophane bottoms. It was a method created in Paris in 1824. It was created by making a plaster of Paris mould of a positive wax carving of a subject. Porcelain is then poured into the mould and fired at a high temperature.
Over the years steins from various different eras have become highly collectible.

At Ghorbany we have a great collection of West German beer steins post WWII if you wish to start your collection or add onto it.

Bureau writing desk

The writing desk or bureau owes its existence to the most unlikeliest of sources, the Holy Bible.

The Holy Bible was always a family’s most treasured possession and in the early 17th Century, when bibles were printed, more families gained access to it. It was often the only book a family owned and the fly leaf and end pages were used to record important family information. Bible boxes were made to keep this treasure safe and were generally kept on a shelf in the living room. They were flat and just large enough to hold the family Bible. The head of the house would take it out on Sundays to read passages to the family gathering. Due to its design, a flat surface and convenient height, the owner would also use this box to write correspondence while standing.

During the 17th Century the Bible box was placed on a stand so that it could more easily be moved around. The frame made it low enough for the owner to sit down whilst using it as a writing surface. Over time the frame evolved with the addition of a top fitted to the desk with a slanting lid to make writing easier, as well as additional places where writing materials could be kept. By the late 17th Century the Bible box and bureau were separated.

The very first bureau writing desk was used during the reign of William and Mary of Orange. Their influence together with that of Queen Anne added much beauty to the writing desk and drawers were added to keep valuables in it. During the 18th Century the writing desk, as we know it today, was born. These desks were made with a flat table top covered in leather with drawers either at the bottom as legs, or on top. These desks were highly finished and often decorated with marquetry as it was placed in the middle of the room.

At Ghorbany Benmore we have an elegant Italian Louis XV style walnut & rosewood inlaid bureau.

Jacob & Josef Kohn furniture

Jacob & Josef Kohn was an Austrian furniture maker & interior designer from Vienna. They also traded as J & J Kohn.

Jacob (1791 - 1866) and his son, Josef (1814 - 1884) founded the company in 1849. They became one of the leading competitors of Gebrüder Thonet in the making of bentwood furniture. All their furniture was made from Austrian beech wood. Thonet patented bentwood furniture, but Josef Kohn sued Michael Thonet over this patent, arguing that Thonet’s products were not sufficiently novel to warrant protection. As a result Thonet gave up his patent and J & J Kohn could begin producing similar furniture to Thonet’s.

J & J Kohn opened shops in many large cities across Europe as well as Austria and the USA. In 1900 they started hiring architects to design furniture for them. They also collaborated with artists of the Wiener Werkstatte & Josef Hoffman, amongst others. J & J Kohn received many awards & prizes for their work as well as a Spanish Royal Warrant of Appointment as purveyors of the royal house. Kohn's work can be seen in a number of museums today, including the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

Kohn merged with Mundes in 1914 who in turn merged with Gebrüder Thonet in 1921, becoming the world’s largest furniture manufacturer.

At Ghorbany Benmore we have an amazing original Josef & Jacob Kohn bentwood rocking chair.

Stuart Crystal

Stuart Crystal’s history starts in 1827 when an 11 year old orphan, Frederick Stuart, was sent to work at Redhouse Glassworks on the Crystal Mile in Stourbridge, England.

Despite his fate and environment the little Stuart learned glassmaking traditions of generations before he, along with Richard Mills and Edward & Thomas Webb formed their own firm in 1853 called Mills, Webb & Stuart. Frederick was so influential that by the time he passed away aged 82, the business was entirely dominated by his sons and him.

Stuart Crystal has made remarkable creations and can be credited with the making of the Stuart Medallion Cameo glass in 1887 and the Beaconsfield pattern in 1907, which is still used today. Stuart Crystal also produced magnificent Art Nouveau vases and bowls.

Notably, Stuart Crystal supplied glass to shipping liners, including the Titanic. It also made a remarkable 22,000 items for Queen Mary in the mid-1930s and the company received the Royal Warrant which further enhanced their reputation and prestige.

In 1995 the Waterford Wedgwood Company bought Stuart Crystal but sadly in 2001 it was permanently closed.

At Ghorbany Benmore we have a set of 6 beautiful Stuart Tamara long stem wine glasses.

Waterford Crystal

Waterford Crystal is a manufacturer of fine crystal named after the city of Waterford, Ireland, and it is one of the world’s most recognised crystal producers.

Waterford Glassworks was created by George and his nephew, William Penrose in 1783 on land adjacent to Merchants' Quay in the heart of the Irish harbor town of Waterford, just minutes from the present-day House of Waterford Crystal. Their vision was to create the finest quality crystal for drinking vessels and objects of beauty for the home. They enjoyed great success until 1853 when they were forced to close down due to the downturn in the business climate of the day.

There were many attempts to revive the once thriving business, but it wasn’t until 1947 that it succeeded. An Irish jeweller, Bernard Fitzpatrick, convinced the Czech glassmaker, Karl Bacik, to relocate to Ireland to restart in Waterford after World War II. Having his country taken over by the USSR and his factories nationalised, Bacik accepted the offer and appointed fellow Czech, Miroslav Havel as chief designer. Havel spent many hours in the National Museum of Ireland studying the surviving crystal produced by the Penroses during the preceding centuries. In 1952 Havel created the Waterford pattern, Lismore, that would became the world’s best selling crystal.

Through the years, Waterford Crystal produced exquisite stemware, chandeliers, trophies and objets d’art. It also made the elaborate chandeliers for Westminster Abbey and the New Year’s Eve Ball dropped each year in Times Square.

In 2009 the Waterford Crystal plant in Killarney was shut down due to the company being placed in receivership. The company was transferred to WWRD Holdings Ltd during this time. Fiskars Corporation (a Finnish maker of home products) bought the company outright in 2015.

Today Waterford crystal is mostly produced outside Ireland in countries like Slovenia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Germany. The “Waterford” acid makers mark will most likely appear on the stem’s base, but can also be found in the grooves as well. Pieces made prior to 2000 will have the company name in a Gothic-script, while newer pieces include the company’s seahorse trademark.

At Ghorbany Benmore we have a great collection of the Waterford Tramore stemware in stock.


Christofle is a luxury French silverware and tableware company founded by Charles Christofle in Paris in 1830. The company is known for introducing electrolytic gilding and silver plating in France in 1842.

Charles Christofle was born into a family of Parisian industrialists specialising in precious metal work. He was 15 years old when he started his apprenticeship with his brother-in-law in manufacturing “provincial jewellery “. He took over the business in 1830 and registered the Christofle maker’s mark.

After he purchased the patent for gilding and silvering by electrolysis, he gave birth to silver plating in France and made a dinner service for King Louis-Phillipe in 1846. Their fame came , however, when Emperor Napoleon III ordered a 4000-piece service in 1851. Its’ titles “goldsmith of the King” and “suppliers of the Emperor “ made the company world famous and they made items for Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, the Tsar of Russia, the German Kaiser, the Austrian-Hungarian Empire and the Sultan Abdulaziz of the Ottoman Empire, amongst others.

After Charles’ death his son and nephew took over the business and Christofle became one of the major goldsmiths of the century. In the year 2000 the company was taken over by a Saudi Arabian Investment Fund.

Christofle continues to make exquisite tableware and decorations and objects d’art. It also launched La Collection Vintage where the company buys back antique Christofle pieces, restores it and resells it.

At Ghorbany Benmore we have a a substantial collection of Christofle Malmaison tableware, circa 1980, in stock.


Manufacture nationale de Sèvres is one of the principal European porcelain factories. It is the continuation of Vincennes porcelain factory founded in 1740 and promoted by Queen Marie in Versailles.

In 1756 the Vincennes porcelain factory moved to a new premises in Sèvres at the request of King Louis XV’s mistress, Madame de Pompadour. At the time King Louis XV bought it outright to save it from bankruptcy and it has been owned by the crown and the government of France ever since.

Initiatially soft-paste porcelain was used in production but in 1770, after the discovery of kaolin (the key ingredient for hard-paste porcelain) in France, Sèvres produced both soft and hard-paste pieces until 1804 when the use of soft-paste porcelain was discontinued.

The styles changed from Rococo to Neo-classism to Empire style to Japonism to Art Nouveau to Art Deco. Today Sèvres produces reproductions of popular old models and contemporary creations. It produces items both for the state and commercial sale. Its only two galleries are located in Sèvres and the other in the heart of Paris, in the 1st arrondissement, between the Louvre and the Comédie-Française.

At Ghorbany Benmore we have a pristine Sèvres soft-paste porcelain tea cup and saucer, circa 1760, marked with the Sèvres mark of two interlaced L’s (for Louis XV) with letter G in middle. The pattern of trelliswork decoration was called ‘mosaïque‘ in the Sèvres manufactory’s archives.

Baccarat Crystal

Baccarat is a French luxury house and manufacturer of fine crystal.

It all started with the closing of the Rozieres saltworks that resulted in the town of Baccarat having a large quantity of excess driftwood. Monseigneur de Mont Morency-Laval, the bishop of Metz and one of the owners of the Vosges forest that produced the driftwood, decided to start a fire pit for glassworks. Bohemian crystal was very popular and exported all over Europe at the time and the Monseigneur thought it good that France should produce its own. After King Louis XV gave permission, the Baccarat glassworks started producing window panes, mirrors and stemware. In 1816 the first crystal oven went into operation and Baccarat had perfected its secret crystal making formula.

Their first Royal commission came from King Louis XVIII in 1823 and this started their growing popularity with Royals and Heads of State the world over. Baccarat benefited greatly from a strong international growth in the luxury market. In 1855 Baccarat won its first gold medal at the World’s Fair in Paris and in 1860 they registered their trademark on all their products. After the fall of Napoleon III many outside influences began to have a stronger influence in Baccarat’s work.

They made the world’s largest chandelier and crystal balustrades for the Dolmabahce Palace in Istanbul, a private collection of decorative pieces and tableware for the Queen of Portugal, custom furniture for the Maharajahs of India, the majestic “Tsar’s” candelabra for Nicholas II, refined creations for the Japanese Imperial Court as well as the Juvisy service for the ceremonial tables at the Élysée Palace, amongst many others.
For the past 260 years Baccarat has crystallised its reputation as one of the foremost crystal makers in the world and to this day remain a favourite amongst the rich and famous!

At Ghorbany Benmore we have exquisite Baccarat stemware, decanters and lamps in stock from the 1800s to the 1900s.


Lalique is a French luxury glassmaker founded by renowned jeweller and glassmaker, Rene Lalique, in 1888 when he also registered the “RL” mark.

He first became well known as a Parisian jeweller and by 1905 he had already opened a third jewellery shop. This shop was located at Place Vendome where he not only showcased his jewellery but also his glass works, which was his first love. It just so happened that this shop was also close to famous Parisian perfumer, Francois Coty. At the time perfumes were sold in steel bottles and Francois Coty asked Rene to produce ornate glass perfume bottles for his perfumes. Soon these became very popular and famous.

Rene Lalique started producing glass objects in his country Villa in 1902 and as demand grew for his artworks, he opened his first glassworks in Combs-la-Ville in 1909. By 1921 a new production facility opened in Wingen-sur-Moder, which remains the production facility til this day. From its founding until the 1900s–1910s, Lalique was one of France's foremost Art Nouveau jewellery designers. In the first two decades of the twentieth century, Lalique transitioned into one of the world's most renowned makers of artistic glass objects.

Rene Lalique died in 1945 and his son, Marc Lalique, took over the business signing works with “M.Lalique”, later “Cristal Lalique” and “Lalique France”. The company transitioned to produce crystal under Marc.

In 1977, following Marc’s death, his daughter Marie-Claude Lalique took control of the company and changed the mark to Lalique®️France. She sold it to Pichet in 1994 who then sold it to a partnership of Art & Frangrance and Financière Saint-Germain in 2008. Since 2010, Cristal Lalique has been wholly owned by Art & Fragrance, who rebranded in 2016 as Lalique Group.

Today Lalique produces luxury jewellery, decorative items, interior design, perfumes and art. At Ghorbany Benmore we have magnificent Lalique pieces in stock from Rene, Marc & Marie-Claude Lalique.


The Royal Factory of Meissen near Dresden, financed by Augustus the Strong, was the first European factory to produce hard-paste porcelain in 1710. Its signature logo, the crossed swords, was introduced in 1720 to protect its production, and is based on the Arms of the Elector of Saxony. Variations in the logo allow approximate dating of wares and it is one of the oldest trademarks in existence.

In 1723, the director Johann Herold, introduced brilliant overglaze colours. His enamel paints are still the basis of ceramic paints today. The signature underglaze “Meissen Blue” was introduced by Friedrich August Kottig and the popular “Blue Onion” pattern has been in production for nearly three centuries.

Meissen became very popular for making bespoke table centrepieces and figurines, as well as small tea and coffee services. From the 1730s they started making armorial porcelain dinner services, mainly for King Augustus, before expanding to the rest Germany and abroad. Augustus’ granddaughter, Maria Amalia of Saxony, married Charles III of Spain and her dowry included 17 Meissen table services, inspiring the couple to start the Capodimonte porcelain factory in Naples.

While its products are expensive the high quality and artistic value make Meissen porcelain desirable by collectors and connoisseurs. At Ghorbany Benmore we have magnificent Meissen pieces in stock, from the early 1800s to the early 1900s.

Silk Kirman double-niche garden rug sold for 1,076,500 GBP!

Silk Kirman double-niche garden rug, signed by Ibrahim ibn Aqa Baqir Kirmani, south east Persia, late 19th century, Acquired from Eberhart Herrmann, Germany, circa 1978 Thence by descent, This rare signed and dated Kirman silk rug derives its design from the tradition of Kirman ‘Garden’ carpets, considered to be among the most beautiful Persian carpets, the earliest of which is in the Albert Hall Museum, Jaipur, circa 1622-32.

The present example is published in Eberhart Herrmann, Von Lotto bis Tekke, Seltene Orientteppiche Aus Vier Jahrhunderten, Munich, 1978, no.51, where its date was read as 1208 AH/1793-94 AD. The date of the carpet is somewhat obscured by the presence of the two dots under the ya’ of Ibrahim and the date could alternatively be read as 1308 or 1318 AH.

The configuration of the garden design, with four compartments arranged around a central pond, closely follows its Safavid predecessors. The streams, here rendered with curved lines evoking the rippling water, meet at the centre of the rug in a star-shaped pond. The resulting quadrants are each filled with mirrored designs of birds, flowers and cypress trees enclosed by the double-niche.

This double-niche composition is unusual but can be related to The Antonia Garden-Niche Inscribed Rug woven in wool, dated Sha’ban 1128 AH/July-August 1716 AD in a private collection, Milan, and recently exhibited in Glorious Flowers in Wool: The Art of Kerman Carpets from 1535–1750 in Italian Collections, Palazzo Posestà o di Nicolosio Lomellino, Genoa, 4-12 February 2023. Another, referred to in the accompanying exhibition text, is recorded in the Imam Reza Shrine (Astan Quds) Carpet Museum Mashhad, and illustrated in HALI, no.190, p.59, fig.5. Two examples with double niches in silk pile are referred to with Eberhart Herrmann, one of which is most likely the present rug.

The design of this example is almost identical to the Mashhad example, and is closely related to the Antonia rug. Each carpet displays a star-shaped pond, and the surrounding cartouches are also filled with cypress trees, flowers and birds. It would appear that the weaver has created a repeat pattern derived from the upper right quadrant of the Genoa example that he has reflected on the horizontal and vertical axes to produce a double niche design. In many ways, the weaver has captured the beauty of his Safavid inspiration. The soft abrash that undulates between sea-blue and green evokes a feeling of rolling hills or rippling water in the garden setting. The flowerheads are lush and in full bloom with minor flowers in cheerful shades of yellow and rose-pink.

In the late nineteenth century, artists across different mediums demonstrated an interest in earlier Safavid styles, responding to the European demand that gave impetus to a revival and renewal of traditional techniques. This was true of the carpet industry, and it was around this time that Safavid carpets such as the renowned Ardabil carpet left Persia to enter foreign collections (Ekhtiar and Sardar 2004). The production of this carpet most likely relates to this push among Qajar weavers to restore the industry and that our weaver encountered the rug in the Imam Reza Shrine and took it as his inspiration.

The Mashhad example would go on to be exhibited in the Burlington House exhibition in 1931 along with a select group of carpets and returned to the shrine at the close of the exhibition (Maktabi 2016, p.65). Maktabi notes that “Historically, the shrine has been off limits to non-Muslims and its treasures the stuff of legend described by those who had seen them first hand” (Maktabi 2016, p.59). The presence of this rare weave thus allows us a glimpse at its magnificent Safavid predecessor. Sotheby’s, Estimate
15,000 - 20,000 GBP,

Sold for 1,076,500 GBP


EUR 200,000 – EUR 400,000, Christie’s


Price realised


Price realised
GBP 403,200


JEAN PROUVÉ | "VISITEUR" ARMCHAIR, MODEL NO. 305 sold for 106,250 USD Sotheby’s.

The George III Goblet: a highly important enamelled Royal armorial goblet by William Beilby, circa 1762-63

The George III Goblet: a highly important enamelled Royal armorial goblet by William Beilby, circa 1762-63
15 November 2023, 14:00 GMT
London, Knightsbridge
£100,000 - £150,000. Bonhams,

Fine Turkish Silk Three Panel Embroidery, ca. 1800

Fine Turkish Silk Three Panel Embroidery, ca. 1800

LOT 0308
Starting Price
$1,500, Grogan and Company,

Large Mamluk gilded and enamelled footed glass bowl, Egypt or Syria, 14th century

Sold for 952,500 GBP 25 October 2023 Sotheby’s, An important large Mamluk gilded and enamelled footed glass bowl, Egypt or Syria, 14th century


GBP 10,000 – GBP 15,000,

Sold for £982,800

Chinese Embroidered Surcoat, Late 19th C.

Chinese Embroidered Surcoat, Late 19th C.

LOT 0259
$4,000-$6,000, material culture,

Sold for $6,000


10.000 - 12.000 SEK
€ 900 - 1.100
13.000 SEK

Sold for 13.000 SEK

Part of a service for the Swedish market with the motto 'Himlen waghte foten' and floral decoration in famille rose enamels. Period: Qianlong (1736–1795). Diameter: 26 cm, 32 cm,and 41.5 cm (dishes), length: 28.5 cm (tureen).

Baron Fredrik Ramels (1872‑1947) samling, därefter i arv.